Interaction between the immune system and cancer cells allows for the use of biological response modifiers, like OK-432, in cancer therapy. We have studied the involvement of monocytes (MOs) in the immune response to OK-432 by examining MCP-1, MIP-1α and MIP-1β secretion, in vitro. OK-432-induced IL-6/TNF-α secretion has previously been shown to depend on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2 and p38, and we therefore investigated the role of these MAPKs in OK-432-induced chemokine secretion. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological MEK1/2 kinase inhibition generally impaired chemokine secretion from MOs, whereas p38 MAPK inhibition in particular reduced MIP-1α production. Furthermore, simultaneous inhibition of MEK1/2 and Syk kinase was seen to have an additive impact on reduced MCP-1, MIP-1α and MIP-1β secretion. Based on single cell flow cytometry analyses, OK-432, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were seen to induce p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation in MOs with different time kinetics. LTA and LPS have been shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 remained constant following OK-432 treatment at the time points tested. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and we demonstrate increased TLR2 cell surface levels on the MO population, most profoundly following stimulation with LTA and OK-432. Together these results indicate that modulation of MEK1/2 and p38 MAPK signalling could affect the response to OK-432 treatment, having the potential to improve its therapeutic potential within cancer and lymphangioma treatment.